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Letzte Änderung am 2010-02-07 13:13:58 von Brilliant examples and link to german list added


Editiert am 2010-02-07 13:11:53 von Brilliant Link zur deutschen Liste hinzugefügt

Erweiterungen:
A command list with german discriptions is available here, too.


Editiert am 2010-02-07 12:54:43 von Brilliant examples added

Erweiterungen:
|| apt-cache || Reads information from the APT database (only Debian) . Example: apt-cache search STRING ||
|| apt-get || Interface to APT to install, uninstall or update (only Debian). Example: apt-get update/install/remove STRING ||
|| cal || Displays a calender. Example: cal -y 2010 or easily cal for actual month ||
|| ifdown || shuts down a netzwerk-interface. For example: ifdown eth0 ||
|| ifup || starts a network-interface. For example: ifup eth0 ||
|| ln || creates link to a file or directory. For example a symbolic link (sound): ln -sf /dev/adsp /dev/dsp ||
|| ls -1 || short list of contents of a directory, but list in only one column ||
|| mcedit || Midnight Comander's Editor. Example: mcedit /etc/inittab ||
|| ping || connection-test via TCP/IP. For Example: ping www.kanotix.com ||
|| split || splits files to part-files with a given size. For example: split -b 300m bigone.avi PartsOf?.avi_ ||
|| sudo || run command as root, need entry in file sudoers.list ||
|| wc || counts letters, words and lines of input. For Example: wc text.txt (stdout: newline count, word count, character count ||


Löschungen:
|| apt-cache || Reads information from the APT database (only Debian) ||
|| apt-get || Interface to APT to install, uninstall or update (only Debian) ||
|| cal || Displays a calender ||
|| ifdown || shuts down a netzwerk-interface ||
|| ifup || starts a network-interface ||
|| ln || creates link to a file or directory ||
|| ping || connection-test via TCP/IP ||
|| split || splits files to part-files with a given size ||
|| sudo || run command as root ||
|| wc || counts letters, words and lines of input ||



Editiert am 2006-08-13 17:27:13 von Richard proofing

Erweiterungen:
#|
|| [Command] & | Execute command in the background. One can still use the terminal ||
|| [Command] && [Command] | Instructions are carried on in succession ||
|| [Command] --help | displays a short help text for the [COMMAND] ||
|| > | Overwrites contents of a file (e.g.: >/var/log/messages) ||
|| zoo || Format for compression and archiving of files ||
|#


Löschungen:
|| [Command] & || Execute command in the background. One can still use the terminal ||
|| [Command] && [Command] || Instructions are carried on in succession ||
|| [Command] --help || displays a short help text for the [COMMAND] ||
|| > || Overwrites contents of a file (e.g.: >/var/log/messages) ||
|| zoo || Format for compression and archiving of files |||



Editiert am 2006-08-05 06:09:41 von Richard

Erweiterungen:
|| apt-listchanges || Shows the changes before installation, of a package that is documented in the changelog (only Debian) ||
|| ftp || opens an FTP-Session to appointed machine (IP over DNS). With FTP (File Transfer Protocol) you can conduct file and directory operations on a remote machine. ||


Löschungen:
|| apt-listchanges || Shows before the installation of a package the changes that are documented in the changelog (only Debian) ||
|| ftp || opens an FTP-Session to appointed machine (IP oder DNS). Per FTP (File Transfer Protocol) you can conduct file- und directoryoperations on a remote machine. ||



Editiert am 2006-08-05 06:05:36 von Richard proofing-Richard.

Erweiterungen:
|| bzip2? || Compress/Decompress files; more efficient than gzip, but substantially more compute time ||

Löschungen:
|| bzip2? || Compresses and decompresses files; more efficiently than gzip, however, it needs substantially more computing time ||


Editiert am 2006-08-05 06:03:38 von Richard

Löschungen:
||
|| Appends to contents of a file (e.g.:
/var/log/messages) ||



Editiert am 2006-08-05 06:03:03 von Richard

Erweiterungen:
|| > || Overwrites contents of a file (e.g.: >/var/log/messages) ||
||
|| Appends to contents of a file (e.g.:
/var/log/messages) ||
|| apt || Debian's Advanced Package Tool ||
|| aptitude || Front-end for apt (only Debian). Recommended since Debian 3.1. ||
|| apt-show-source || Displays information on source files (only Debian) ||
|| bzdiff || Compares files compressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzip2? || Compresses and decompresses files; more efficiently than gzip, however, it needs substantially more computing time ||
|| bzless || Displays with less, files decompressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzmore || Displays with more, files decompressed with bzip2? ||
|| cdbackup || Writes data streams on CD (e.g., standard output of tar) ||
|| deborphan || Looks for packages upon whom, no other installed package(s) are dependent (only Debian) ||
|| emacs || Eight megabytes and continuously swapping. Powerful editor with mail and news functions. Very simple operation and its own Lisp similar script language for configuration ||
|| fdisk || Create/delete partitions. Shows the actual partition table ||
|| fdisk [DEVICE] || Partitioning of hd [DEVICE] ||
|| fdupes || Searches for double files ||


Löschungen:
|| > || Overwrites contents of a file (e.g.: >/var/log/messages) ||
|| apt || Debian Packages Managing tool ||
|| aptitude || Front-end for apt (only Debian) ||
|| apt-show-source ||Displays information on source files (only Debian) ||
|| bzdiff || Compares to files compressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzip2? || Compresses and decompresses files; more efficiently than gzip, substantially needs however more computing time ||
|| bzless || Displays with less files decompressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzmore || Displays with more files decompressed with bzip2? ||
|| cdbackup || Writes data streams on CD (e.g. standard output of tar) ||
|| deborphan || Looks for packages from whom no other installed package are dependent (only Debian) ||
|| emacs || Eight megabyte always continuously swapping. Powerful editor with mail and news functions. Very simple operation and its own Lisp similar script language for configuration ||
|| fdisk || creating/deleting partitions. shows the actual partitiontable ||
|| fdisk [DEVICE] || partitioning of hd [DEVICE] ||
|| fdupes || searches for double files ||



Editiert am 2006-08-05 05:32:15 von Richard proofing-Richard.

Erweiterungen:
General List of Linux Commands
All possible commands can be displayed at the terminal, if TAB is pressed twice. There are over 3000, depending on the packages installed.
|| [Command] & || Execute command in the background. One can still use the terminal ||


Löschungen:
--> General List of Linux Commands <--
All possible commands can be displayed at the terminal, if TAB is pressed twice. There are over 3000, dependant on the packages installed.
||| [Command] & || Execute command in the background. One can still use the terminal ||



älteste bekannte Version dieser Seite wurde bearbeitet am 2006-03-13 19:45:24 von stephan.r [ ]

--> General List of Linux Commands <--



All possible commands can be displayed at the terminal, if TAB is pressed twice. There are over 3000, dependant on the packages installed.

When you want to display commands starting with a specific letter, then simply type the letter and then TAB twice.

Here's a short listing:

||| [Command] & || Execute command in the background. One can still use the terminal ||
|| [Command] && [Command] || Instructions are carried on in succession ||
|| [Command] --help || displays a short help text for the [COMMAND] ||
|| > || Overwrites contents of a file (e.g.: >/var/log/messages) ||
|| afio || Manipulates archives and files ||
|| agetty || An alternative to getty. Opens a TTY port, and calls a login. Is normally called from init ||
|| alias || "Set aliases for commands. For example: 'alias rmd=rm -rf '" ||
|| alias ls='ls --color' || Set color display for ls ||
|| alien || Converts and installs packages in different formats (e.g.: *.rpm, *.deb, *.tgz, *.slp) ||
|| alsaconf || Configuration of the ALSA sound systems ||
|| apg || Automated Password Generator, produces secure passwords ||
|| apropos || Shows the title of the man pages containing a given keyword ||
|| apt || Debian Packages Managing tool ||
|| apt-cache || Reads information from the APT database (only Debian) ||
|| apt-cdrom || Enter new CD-Rom to the APT list (only Debian) ||
|| apt-get || Interface to APT to install, uninstall or update (only Debian) ||
|| aptitude || Front-end for apt (only Debian) ||
|| apt-listchanges || Shows before the installation of a package the changes that are documented in the changelog (only Debian) ||
|| apt-proxy || Proxy for apt (only Debian) ||
|| apt-setup || Source of installation - select source of packages for APT (only Debian) ||
|| apt-show-source ||Displays information on source files (only Debian) ||
|| apt-show-version || Shows the available version of installed packages ||
|| apt-spy || Compares Debian mirrors for bandwith and generates a /etc/apt/sources.list file (only Debian) ||
|| ar || Archives and library maintenance||
|| arch || Indicates the processor family ||
|| argus || Tool to examine IP packages||
|| arp || Displays the contents of the ARP table||
|| arping || Sends ARP and/or IP pings ||
|| at || implements a command at a set time once ||
|| atsar || System activity report, displays statistics for system utilization||
|| auto-apt || Package installation on demand (only Debian) ||
|| awk || Programming language for file handling ||
|| axel || Downloads accelerator, uses several connections for the downloads||
|| badblocks || Scans partition for damaged blocks (bad blocks) ||
|| banner || Displays a large banner ||
|| base-config || Basic configuration for Debian Linux (time zone, packages selection ...) ||
|| basename || Displays a file name without filepath; see dirname ||
|| batch || Carries a command on once when the system is not working at full capacity ||
|| bc || An arbitrary precision calculator language ||
|| beav || Hexadecimal editor ||
|| beep || Sends tones to the system loudspeaker||
|| bind || Sets or displays the key allocation for the READ LINE editor function (internal shell instruction) ||
|| bunzip2? || Decompresses files, which were compressed with bzip2? ||
|| bwm || Bandwidth monitor can display time up to 16 interfaces at a same ||
|| bzcat || Decompresses to standard output files compressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzdiff || Compares to files compressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzegrep || Search for a specific character string through files compressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzfgrep || Search for a specific character string through files compressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzgrep || Search for a specific character string through files compressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzip2? || Compresses and decompresses files; more efficiently than gzip, substantially needs however more computing time ||
|| bzip2recover? || Recovers data from damaged bzip2? archives||
|| bzless || Displays with less files decompressed with bzip2? ||
|| bzmore || Displays with more files decompressed with bzip2? ||
|| cadubi || Program to draw diagrams in ASCII ||
|| cal || Displays a calender ||
|| calendar || Reminder ||
|| cat || Concatenate several files and displays the result on standard output ||
|| cat /proc/cpuinfo || Infos zur CPU ||
|| cat /proc/filesystems || Supported file systems ||
|| cat /proc/filesystems || All supported file systems ||
|| cat /proc/pci || Information on the PCI cards ||
|| cat [Datei] || Display the content of the files ||
|| cd || Changes to the home directory of the user ||
|| cd - || Changes to the previous directory ||
|| cd .. || Changes to the parent directory ||
|| cd / || Changes to the root directory ||
|| cd [DIR] || Changes to the [DIR]directory ] ||
|| cdbackup || Writes data streams on CD (e.g. standard output of tar) ||
|| cftp || FTP client ||
|| chacl || Changes the "Access control lists" (ACLs) ||
|| chattr || Changes the ext2fs? attributes ||
|| chfn || Changes the user information of an account (room-numberwork-phonehome-phone) ||
|| chgrp || Changes the group affiliation of a file ||
|| chgrp [GROUP] [FILE] || Changes the group of the file [ FILE ] to [ GROUP ] ||
|| chkconfig || Setting and displaying of init.d runlevel links, which are processed at boot. Front end to insserv ||
|| chkrootkit || Examines whether the system is infected by a root kit ||
|| chmod || Change the ownership rights of files||
|| chown || Change the owner of a file ||
|| chroot || Change the root directory ||
|| chsh || Changes that login shell of a user account||
|| cksum || Compute a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum for a file ||
|| clear || Clears the terminal screen ||
|| cmp || Compares two files for match ||
|| col || Filter for escape sequences and line feeds ||
|| comm || Selects identical lines of the output/file ||
|| compress || Compresses files in the Lempel-Ziv procedure ||
|| console-apt || Front end for apt (only Debian) ||
|| cp || Copies files and directories ||
|| cp [File][Dir] || Copies file in directory ||
|| cp [FILE1] [FILE2] || Copies file [FILE1] into file [FILE2] ||
|| cpio || Copies files in and/or from archives ||
|| cpuid || Reads information from Intel and AMD x86 CPU's, the CPU ID among other things ||
|| crontab || Displays the user-specific Cron table, and/or opens it to edits ||
|| crypt ||Encrypts or decrypts files ||
|| cvs || Version Management System ||
|| date || Displays the date and time ||
|| dpkg || Debian package management tool ||
|| dc || Computer for the reverse Polish notation ||
|| dd || Copies and converts data blocks between Devices/files (low level) byte for byte ||
|| dd if=/dev/hda of=~/hda.mbr bs=512 count=1 || safeguards MBR ||
|| dd if=hda.mbr of=/dev/hda bs=512 count=1 || overwrites MBR ||
|| dd_rescue || Like dd, however it doesn't abort on errors, ohne Konvertierung, andere Syntax ||
|| ddclient || Updates your IP addresses with the dynamic DNS server of dynDNS?.org ||
|| debfoster || Removes unnecessary packages (only Debian) ||
|| deborphan || Looks for packages from whom no other installed package are dependent (only Debian) ||
|| depmod || Stores descriptions of dependencies for kernel module in a file ||
|| df || Reports the filesystem space used and space available||
|| df || Reports the use of the mounted devices||
|| diald || Daemon, establishes IP connections if required||
|| diff || Compares two files and reports the differences between ||
|| dig || DNS inquiring (domain information Groper) ||
|| dip || Tool for IP dial up connections ||
|| dirname || Divides path and file name and displays the path see basename ||
|| dirs || Displays the list of currently remembered directories obtained with pushd (internal Shell instruction) ||
|| dlocate || Points information to a Debian package on (only Debian) ||
|| dmesg || With the dmesg command the boot messages from the last system start will be reported to you ||
|| dmesg | grep hd || Information about all hard drives ||
|| dnsdomainname || Displays and change the DNS domain names ||
|| domainname || Displays and change the NIS/YP domain names ||
|| dpkg-reconfigure || Reconfigures a package already installed (only Debian) ||
|| dpkg-scanpackage || Produces the file Packages.gz for a local listing with Debian packages (only Debian) ||
|| dpkg-scansources || Produces the file Packages.gz for a local listing with Debian Sources (only Debian) ||
|| dpkg-source || Packs and unpacks Debian source packages ||
|| dselect || Debian package administration tool ||
|| du || Indicates the memory consumption of individual directories ||
|| dump || ext2? filesystem backup ||
|| dumpe2fs? || Gives information about the filesystem on a partition ||
|| e2fsck || Examines and repairs Linux ext2? filesystems ||
|| e2label || Assigns a file system a label (designation), and/or displays the label ||
|| echo || Displays a text on the console ||
|| edquota || Change the quota settings for a user ||
|| eject || Ejects a removable medium, e.g. opens the drawer or a CD-Rom drive ||
|| emacs || Eight megabyte always continuously swapping. Powerful editor with mail and news functions. Very simple operation and its own Lisp similar script language for configuration ||
|| env || Displays all the environment variables ||
|| ettercap || Displays Netpackets in switched networks (network Sniffer) ||
|| exif || Displays the EXIF information to JPG pictures ||
|| exit || Leaves the current session ||
|| expr || Accomplishes a simple integer computation ||
|| fdisk || creating/deleting partitions. shows the actual partitiontable ||
|| fdisk [DEVICE] || partitioning of hd [DEVICE] ||
|| fdupes || searches for double files ||
|| file || shows type of file. ||
|| find || good searchtool ||
|| find . | grep [file] || searches for file in directory ||
|| finger || shows login-name, real-name, terminal-names, idle-time (time since last usage of account), login-time, location and telephone number of the cited user-account. ||
|| fold || wraps lines that are too long ||
|| free || shows memoryusage. devided in RAM and SWAP-Space. ||
|| fsck || checks and repairs Linux-filesystems ||
|| fsck [DEVICE] || checks device [DEVICE] for errors ||
|| ftp || opens an FTP-Session to appointed machine (IP oder DNS). Per FTP (File Transfer Protocol) you can conduct file- und directoryoperations on a remote machine. ||
|| ftpcount || shows the number of ftp-connections ||
|| ftpwho || shows info on ftp-User ||
|| fuser || shows processes that are accessing files and filesystems ||
|| gears || Benchmark for X Window ||
|| getfacl || display of ,,Access Control Lists`` (ACLs) ||
|| getty || opens a TTY Port and invokes login . normaly used by init ||
|| glxgears || Benchmark for GLX X Window ||
|| glxinfo || info on OpenGL? and graphiccard ||
|| gpg || tool to encrypt and verify. main tool of the GnuPG? System ||
|| gpgv || checks digital signatures generated with gpg ||
|| grep ||looks for string in file, or for a redirected output (echo test.txt | grep whatever)||

|| grep [KEY] [FILE] || looks for key in file ||
|| grep [SEARCHSTRING] [FILE] || searches file for searchstring ||
|| groupadd || add new user-group ||
|| groupadd [GROUP] || adds new group ||
|| groupdel [GROUP] || delete group ||
|| groupmod || change data of existing user-group ||
|| groups || shows group-membership of user ||
|| grub-floppy || write grub- bootfloppy ||
|| gunzip || uncompresses files compressed witg gzip ||
|| gzip || compresses and uncompresses files ||
|| halt || shutdown system ||
|| hash || shows the hash-table (internal shell-command) ||
|| hddtemp || shows temperature of hd's ||
|| hdparm || tool to tune certain parameters of your hd ||
|| head || shows the first lines of a file ||
|| hex || shows contents of a fil in hexadecimal ||
|| hexcurse || hexeditor (based on ncurses) ||
|| hexedit || hexeditor ||
|| hexeditor || hexeditor (based on ncurses) ||
|| history || shows entries in history-file of user numbered from...to ||
|| host || show and change host-ID ||
|| hostid || DNS query ||
|| hostname || show and change host-name ||
|| hping2? || sends optional ip-packets to remote machine ||
|| hunt || network sniffer ||
|| hwclock || inquire and set hardware-clock ||
|| icmpush || build and send optional ICMP-packets ||
|| id || shows your username and group-membership ||
|| identify || shows info on graphic-files. tool from ImageMagick? ||
|| ifconfig || configures netwerk-interfaces or shows their config and status ||
|| ifdown || shuts down a netzwerk-interface ||
|| ifport || chooses transmission method for a network-interface ||
|| ifup || starts a network-interface ||
|| ifuser || shows routes for a single network-interface ||
|| imon || shows info on current ISDN-connections ||
|| info || shows GNU info-pages. info is an alternative to ma, which in mainly used with GNU software. ||
|| info [COMMAND] || shows info on [COMMAND] in info-system ||
|| init || change runlevel ||
|| insmod || with insmod you load the given module for path: module /lib/modules/<Version>/ ||
|| insserv || set and show of init.d runlevel-links ||
|| install-keymap || expand and install a keymap ||
|| intop || Network-Browser ||
|| iostat || shows info on input/output ||
|| ipcalc || IP Netmask Broadcast calculator ||
|| ipchains || tool for the configuration of the kernel-firewall ||
|| ipchains-restore || shows current firewall-rules of kernel ||
|| ipchains-save || rebuilds firewall-rules built beforehand by ipchains-save ||
|| ipfwadm || firewall of kernel 2.0 ||
|| ipsc || IP Subnet calculator. calculates subnetmask of a given ip-adress ||
|| iptables || firewall of kernel 2.4 ||
|| iptables-restore || shows current firewall-rules of kernel ||
|| iptables-save || restores firewall-rules beforehand set by iptables-save ||
|| iptraf || shows ip-traffic ||
|| ipv4calc? || calculates IP4 elements for a given ip-adress (i.e. the subnetmask) ||
|| isdnctrl || sets ISDN information or gives them back.also starts and shuts down an ISDN-connection. ||
|| ispellconfig || selection of the ispell-dictionary (only for debian) ||
|| iwconfig || display and configuration of a network-interface (like ifconfig) ||
|| joe || Joe's Own Editor.editor with a wordstar-like userinterface ||
|| john || search for weak passwords (password cracker) ||
|| join || binds lines of the output ||
|| jpeginfo || shows info for a jpeg-picture ||
|| kbd_mode || sets or shows keyboardmode ||
|| kbdrate || set the speed und repeatrates of the keyboard ||
|| kill [PID] || shuts down the process with the process-id [PID] ||
|| killall || shuts down all processes with given name ||
|| killall [Prog] || shuts down process with processname [Prog] ||
|| killproc || shuts down the process dessen executable is in the given path ||
|| kismet || wireless network (WLAN) sniffer ||
|| knocker || portscanner ||
|| kudzu || hardware-recognition-tool ||
|| last || shows last logins ||
|| ldconfig || informs the system about dynamic libraries ||
|| ldd || shows the necessary libraries of a program ||
|| less || show certain number of lines of a file ||
|| less [FILE] || like more, but you may scroll upwards as well ||
|| lha || LZH unarchiver ||
|| lilo || Linux Loader (Bootmanager ) ||
|| links || browser that supports tables and frames ||
|| linux_logo || creates coloured ASCII Linux logos ||
|| ln || creates link to a file or directory ||
|| lndir || creates a ,,shadow-directory`` with symbolic link from another directory ||
|| loadlin || boot Linux from Dos ||
|| locate || search files aided by an index created by updatedb ||
|| locate [FILE] || searches for file in the database ||
|| lockfile || creates signalfiles to limit access to a file ||
|| logger || gives messages to the systemprotocol-tool syslogd ||
|| login || login or login again as user ||
|| logname || shows own login-name ||
|| logout || proper logout from konsole ||
|| logrotate || rotates and archives logfiles ||
|| look || searches for files with a certain first line ||
|| lpq || show printjobs ||
|| lpr || put a printjob into the printqueue ||
|| lprm || delete a printjob ||
|| lptest || send testpage to printer (lptest | lpr) ||
|| ls || short list of contents of a directory ||
|| ls -l || detailed list of contents of a directory ||
|| ls -la || detailed list of all files in a directory ||
|| lsattr || show ext2fs?-attributes ||
|| lsdev || shows info on installed hardware ||
|| lsmod || shows loaded modules ||
|| lsof || shows open files ||
|| lspci || shows info on devices on the pci-bus ||
|| lsusb || shows info on usb-devices ||
|| lynx || widely spread textbased browser ||
|| lzop || compresses/decompresses files faster than gzip ||
|| magicfilterconfig || LPD printerconfiguration (Debian) ||
|| mail || sends email to a user ||
|| mailq || shows mails to be sent ||
|| make menuconfig || setup kernel ||
|| man [COMMAND] || shows man-page for [COMMAND] ||
|| man ls | col -xb > man_ls.txt || save man-page as textfile ||
|| mc || Midnight Comander filemanager (Norton Comander Clone) ||
|| mcrypt || encrypts files (also see mdecrypt) ||
|| md5sum? || creates and validates MD5 checksums (128 Bit, RFC 1321) ||
|| mdecrypt || decrypts files (also see mcrypt) ||
|| mesg || sets up if messages of other users are shown on the user's screen ||
|| mii-diag || sets and checks registers of networkcards ||
|| mii-tool || sets and checks settings of networkcards ||
|| mingetty || minimal getty. opens a TTY port, and calls up login. norm. called by init ||
|| minicom || terminal-program for serial connections (Modem) ||
|| mkboot || creates bootdisk ||
|| mkdir || creates new directory ||
|| mkdirhier || creates new directory-hierarchy ||
|| mkdosfs || creates a Dos (FAT16 und FAT32) filesystem in the given partition ||
|| mke2fs? || creates an ext2? filesystem in the given partition ||
|| mke2fs? [DEVICE] || createsan ext2? filesystem on the device [DEVICE] ||
|| mkfs || Frontend for diffrerent filesystem-tools ||
|| mknmz || creates index for namazu (fulltext-searchengine) ||
|| mkswap || creates a Linux Swap-partition in the given partition ||
|| mmv || moves numerous files, accepts wildcards ||
|| modconf || configuration of kernel-modules (only Debian) ||
|| modinfo || shows info on a kernel-module ||
|| modprobe || loads modules /etc/conf.modules is being analysed ||
|| modprobe [Modul] || loads a modul ||
|| more [FILE] || shows content of a file per page ||
|| mount || binds devices into the system ; output of all mounted devices/partitions ||
|| mount /mnt/cdrom || binds the CD-R into the system ||
|| mount -a || mounts all devices from /etc/fstab ||
|| mount -m || mounts without a given entry in /etc/mtab ||
|| mount -r || media is readonly ||
|| mount -t [Filesystem] || mounts with given filesystem ||
|| mount -w || media is read and write ||
|| mt || controls a streamer (spin back and forth etc.) ||
|| mtr || network diagnosis tool, combines ping und traceroute ||
|| mv || moves files and directories (renames as well) ||
|| mysql || client for MySQL? ||
|| mysqldump || dump and backup Tool for MySQL? ||
|| mysqlshow || shows all installed databases of a MySQL? - server ||
|| namazu || fulltext-searchengine ||
|| namei || follows a pathname ||
|| nbtscan || scans nets for NetBIOS? names information ||
|| ncftp || browser-program for the File Transfer Protocol (ftp) ||
|| netcat || reads and writes data over a network connection ||
|| netconfig || configuration of the network ||
|| netdate || timesync with remote machine ||
|| netpbm || suite for graphicjobs with more than 220 tools ||
|| netstat || query of the network-interfaces; display statistics and the kernel's routingtable ||
|| newgrp || change active group ||
|| nfsstat || shows a statistic of NFS ||
|| ngrep || Grep for network ||
|| nice || sets priority of a process ||
|| nictools || diagnosis tools for network-cards (i.e. rtl8139?-diag or eepro100?-diag) ||
|| nl || numbers the lines of output ||
|| nl datei.txt || gives out textfile with numbered lines ||
|| nmap || portscan ||
|| nmblookup || NetBIOS? over TCP/IP client (Samba Tool) ||
|| nohup || start a programm with immunity to SIGHUPs ||
|| nroff || textformatter and settool, nroff for printing on matrixprinters ||
|| nslookup || DNS-query ||
|| od || displays files octal or in other formats ||
|| orphaner || frontend for deborphan (only Debian) ||
|| outguess || steganography-tool, to hide secret info in pictures and soundfiles ||
|| passwd || set or change password for user ||
|| patch || imports a patchfile ||
|| pftp || Internet File-Transfer Program ||
|| pgp || PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is a very good tool to encrypt emails and files ||
|| pico || simple editor, based on the pine-composer (pine is a mail-client). ||
|| picocom || terminal-program for serial connections (Modem) ||
|| pidof || shows the PID(s) for a given process ||
|| ping || connection-test via TCP/IP ||
|| pppconfig || Debian-configuration-tool for a PPPOE- dialup-connection (Modem) ||
|| pppoeconf || configuration of a DSL (PPPoE?) connection (only Debian) ||
|| pr || convert text for printing ||
|| printenv || gives back all environment-variables ||
|| procinfo || shows important system-info (read from /proc) ||
|| ps || shows all processes with their pid, the User-ID of the current user and terminal-ID ||
|| ps aux || shows all running processes and services ||
|| ps ax || shows info on running processes ||
|| pstree || shows all running processes in a treeview ||
|| pwd || shows current directory ||
|| pwgen || creates pronouncable passwords ||
|| queso || guesses on operating system of a remote machine ||
|| quota || shows hd-usage and the limits for differtent users ||
|| quotacheck || checks a filesystem for hd-usage, erstellt, creates, checks and repairs quota files ||
|| quotaoff || switches off Quota for a certain filesystem ||
|| quotaon || switches on Quota for a certain filesystem ||
|| R || system for statistic calculation and graphics ||
|| rar || packs and unpacks files ||
|| rcconf || Debian runlevel configuration-tool ||
|| rcp || remote copy, copy to remote machine ||
|| rc-update show || shows all services run at startup ||
|| rdev || query/set of root-devices, RAM-Disk size or display-mode ||
|| readlink || shows target of symbolic links ||
|| reboot || startup system again ||
|| remind || advanced reminder-service with calculation of dates ||
|| rename || moves quantity of files, accepts wildcards ||
|| restore || recover a filesystem secured by dump ||
|| rev || reverses a character-string ||
|| rlogin || remote-login ||
|| rm || deletes a file ||
|| rmdir || deletes a directory ||
|| rmmod || unload the given module, will only do, if module is not needed anymore ||
|| route || manipulates routes to remote machines; norm. used to set up a static route to a certain machine ||
|| rpm || RedHat? Pakage Manager Linux standard not only for RedHat? ||
|| rpm2cpio? || converts rpm-archives to cpio archives ||
|| rpmfind || searches for RPM (Red-Hat Packet Manager) pakets in the internet ||
|| rpost || sends message to NNTP News-Server ||
|| rsh || start shell on remote machine ||
|| rwall || sends message to user on a machine in the local net ||
|| rwho || queries rhwod-server who is logged in in local net ||
|| samba || Windows SMB/CIFS Fileserver for Unix; configured in /etc/smb.conf ||
|| sar || system-activity reporter, display of system-activity ||
|| sc || spreadsheet for konsole ||
|| scanpci || shows info for PCI Bus ||
|| scp || Secure copy, secure copy to remote machines ||
|| script || logs a terminalsession ||
|| set || managing options and parameters (internal shell-command ) ||
|| setfacl || setting ,,Access Control Lists`` (ACLs) ||
|| setleds || setting of keybord-LEDs (NumLock, CapsLock? und ScrollLock?) ||
|| setpci || configuration of the PCI Bus and attached devices ||
|| setserial || shows/changes settings of serial interface ||
|| setup || configuration-tool for Slackware-Linux ||
|| sftp || Secure file transfer program ||
|| sha1sum? || creates and validates SHA-1 checksums (160 Bit) ||
|| shadowconfig || turns shadow-passwords on and of ||
|| showkey || shows keyboardcode for the different keys ||
|| shred || secure deletion of files ||
|| shutdown || shutdown or reboot of the system ||
|| shutdown -h now || shutdown system now ||
|| shutdown -r now || reboot system now ||
|| si || System Information Viewer, reads info from /proc directory ||
|| siga || display systeminformation ||
|| sleep || wait 'n' seconds ||
|| sleep 5 && import -window root screenshot.jpg || create screenshot ||
|| slist || shows available NetWare? servers ||
|| slurm || realtime net-monitor ||
|| smbmnt || mounting of smbfs-filesystem ||
|| smbmount || mounting of smbfs-filesystem (see also smbmnt) ||
|| smbpasswd || encryption of samba passwords ||
|| smbstatus || display of current samba connections ||
|| sniffit || network-sniffer ||
|| sort || sorts output of programs or files ||
|| split || splits files to part-files with a given size ||
|| sq || packs a list of words (output is still a textfile that can be further packed with gzip e.g. ||
|| ssh || secure shell, start secure shell to remote machine ||
|| startx || starts x-window system and graphical user interface, e.g. kde or gnome ||
|| stat || shows info on files and filesystems ||
|| steghide || steganography-programm, hides information in pictures and soundfiles ||
|| strg + C || kills current action in a konsole ||
|| strings || extracts all (readable) characterstrings from a file/output ||
|| stty || configuration of a serial interface ||
|| su || you now work as root in a konsole ||
|| su [USER] || you now work as [USER] in a konsole ||
|| sudo || run command as root ||
|| sum || detects filelenght and checksum of a file ||
|| tail || outputs last lines of a file ||
|| talk || copies lines from your monitor to that of other user (lets you 'talk' to him ||
|| taper || backup utility (mostly used with streamers) ||
|| tar || packs and unpacks directories with numerous files ||
|| targ || recovery of damaged tar-archives ||
|| tcpconnect || general TCP Client, builds up connection to a server ||
|| tcpdchk || checks the settings of TCP Wrapper ||
|| tcpdmatch || prophicy on how TCP Wrapper is going to handle certain task ||
|| tcpdump || displays netpakets (network-sniffer) ||
|| tcplisten || common TCP server, listens on a TCP port ||
|| tcptraceroute || like traceroute, uses TCP pakets instead of ICMP pakets ||
|| tee || duplicates the output of a program (for simultaneous display on screen and lgging in a file) ||
|| telnet || Terminal-session on a remote machine ||
|| tethereal || display and analize networkpakets (network-sniffer) ||
|| tftp || TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Client ||
|| tiger || UNIX Security Checker ||
|| time || show exec-time for a command ||
|| times || shows system- and usertime (internal shell command) ||
|| top || shows running programs, their processes and cpu-usage ||
|| touch || changes timestamp of files. if a files does not exist, it gets created with 0 byte size ||
|| traceroute || trace connections ||
|| tree || Zeigt einen Verzeichnis-Baum an ||
|| troff || textformatter, for printing on modern laserprinters. ||
|| tty || shows the devicename of the active terminal ||
|| tune2fs? || tool for different settings on ext2? filesystems (e.g. maximal mount count) ||
|| type || shows the type of a file and the interpretation of the filename as a parameter ||
|| umask || sets default mask for filerights on a newly created file (internal shell-command) ||
|| umount || detaches a filesystem from the directorytree ||
|| umount /mnt/cdrom || detaches a CD-rom from the filesystem ||
|| uname || shows the kernel-name and version ||
|| uname -a || shows Kernel-information ||
|| unarj || unpacks files that were packed under DOS with arj ||
|| uncompress || unpacks files that were packed with compress ||
|| uniq || removes duplicate lines from a file ||
|| unrar || unpacks files that were packed with rar ||
|| unshadow || connects /etc/shadow and /etc/passwd ||
|| unsq || decompresses a list of words compressed with sq ||
|| unzip || decompresse zip-archives ||
|| updatedb || updates the database ||
|| updatedb || creates a search-index of the whole filesystem for use with locate ||
|| update-menus || creates menus (startmenus for Windowmanager) for installed programs (only Debian) ||
|| update-rc.d || set and delete system-V init-Links (only Debian) ||
|| uptime || shows system-uptime since last boot ||
|| useradd || create new useraccount. at least loginname must be given ||
|| useradd -m [USER] || creates user and homedirectory ||
|| userdel || deletes useraccount ||
|| userdel -r [USER] || deletes user and homedirectory ||
|| usermod || change an existing useraccount ||
|| uudecode || decode file that was coded to ASCI with uuencode ||
|| vi || standard Unix-editor. ||
|| vim || vi-Improved. vi with improved fuctionality (e.a. syntaxhighlighting, multiple-Undo, Online-help..) ||
|| vmstat || shows info on Virtual Memory ||
|| w3m || Webbrowser ||
|| wall || sends content of file to all users ||
|| wc || counts letters, words and lines of input ||
|| webalizer || analizes the logfiles of a webserver ||
|| webmine || Linux configuration-tool (per webbrowser) ||
|| wget || downloads files from the internet ||
|| whatis || shows the titel of manpages for a given subject ||
|| whereis || searches for binary (executable), source-code and manpage of a programm ||
|| which || shows, where a program is located ||
|| who || who is logged in? ||
|| whoami || shows currently logged in user ||
|| whois || querie the RFC-812 database (NIC DENIC) Info on Domains ||
|| wipe || secure delition of files and directories ||
|| write || writes message to konsole of another user, unless he turned this option of by msg ||
|| wvdial || Programm zum erstellen einer Internet-Verbindung ||
|| X -version || Indicates version of Xfree, an implementation of the X Window System ||
|| x86info || Displays information about the CPU in an x86 system ||
|| xargs || Builds and executes command lines from standard input ||
|| xdpyinfo || Displays information about the active X display ||
|| xf86cfg? || Graphical configuration tool for XFree86? 4.0, an implementation of the X Window System ||
|| xf86config? || Older X configuration program with a text based interface that modifies the "/etc/X11/XF86Config" configuration file ||
|| XF86Setup || Newer X configuration program with a GUI interface that modifies the "/etc/X11/XF86Config" configuration file ||
|| xprobe || Tool for determining the operating system of a remote machine ||
|| xxd || Indicates contents of a file in hexadecimals ||
|| yppasswd || Changes login password in the Network Information Service database ||
|| zcat || Restores compressed files to their original form. Corresponds to gunzip -c ||
|| zdiff || Compares contents of two gzip (compressed) files using the diff program ||
|| zegrep || Searches a possibly compressed file for a regular expression using the egrep program ||
|| zfgrep || Searches a possibly compressed file for a regular expression using the fgrep program ||
|| zgrep || Searches a possibly compressed file for a regular expression using the grep program ||
|| zgv || Graphics viewer and command-line file viewer for the console (VGA/SVGA) ||
|| zip || File compression and packaging utility (pkzip and winzip compatible) ||
|| zipgrep || Searches files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern ||
|| zipinfo || Lists technical information about files in a ZIP archive ||
|| zless || File perusal filter for viewing compressed or plain text files one screenful at a time ||
|| zmore || File perusal filter for viewing compressed or plain text files one screenful at a time ||
|| znew || Converts files from the .Z format (compress) to the .gz (gzip) format ||
|| zoo || Format for compression and archiving of files |||
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