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kanotix.com FAQ (h酳fig gestellte Fragen)

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Why Is A Script In The Root-Shell Not Executed, Even Though It's There And The Rights Are Set Correctly?

This happens if you execute e.a.:

# my_script.sh

and the current directory is not in the path. For security reasons commands as "root" are o要ly executed from "trustworthy" directories (/bin, /usr/bin, ...) so that root can not execute programs as root without noticing. If you want to execute programs in the current directory, you must add their path, for example:

# ./my_script.sh


# ./ramdisk/my_script.sh

The dot and the adjactent slash always represent the current directory, but the full path can also be given.

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What is MD5-Sum and how do I validate it?

That is a checksum for a file and is used to check the integrity of files. The current MD5-Sum of the file is compared with a known checksum. This way you can validate if a file has been changed or damaged; this is advisible for files downloaded from the internet.

If the md5-sum of the downloaded file corresponds to the o要e in the md5-file, you can be sure that the file was downloaded correctly.
Under Linux you get the checksum with:

$ md5sum file_to_check

(takes a short while), the sum will be written in the konsole.
With md5summer (486 kb) the md5-sum can also be validated in Windows.

The ISO-Images of KANOTIX are always offered with a md5-checksum file and should always be validated before burning. This guarantees that if problems occur, they are not to be sought in the downloaded files, and this keeps the forum free of problems that can't be pinned down because the ISO-file was damaged in the first place. You should do this in a konsole. Change to the directory with the Iso-File and the MD5-Sum and issue e.g. the command:

$ md5sum -c KANOTIX-2005-03-LITE.iso.md5

to have the md5-sum checked.
If they don't match, you will get an error:

"KANOTIX-2005-03-LITE.iso: Error
md5sum: Warning: 1 von 1 calculated checksum does not match!"

If the downloaded file is correct, the program ends without a message.

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I have read something about Bittorent. What is that?

Bittorent is a protocol for filesharing, it is o要 the KANOTIX-CD and the Knoppix-CD's since Nov. 2003. This enables you to download files from the internet and upload at the same time. All you have to do is issue e.g. the command:

# btdownloadcurses --max_upload_rate 12 ftp://debian.tu-bs.de/kanotix/KANOTIX-2005-03/KANOTIX-2005-03.iso.torrent

in a konsole, soon after your download should start. Be sure that there is enough free space for the ISO-File in the directory that you issue the command from, (ca. 700 MB). After your download is finished, please keep the program running so that you share the file for other users. This will decrease the overall load o要 the servers, and the files get spread faster. A good tutorial can be found o要 http://btfaq.com/serve/cache/1.html

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After "apt-get dist-upgrade" My Connection To The Internet Is Gone. What Went Wrong?

There can be different reasons. Maybe the config-file /etc/network/interfaces got deleted.

Running the program "netcardconfig" from the KANOTIX-Menu (the o要e with the fish next to K-Menu) or "# netcardconfig" in a konsole as root should solve the problem in most cases.

If that does not help, please start your KANOTIX Live-CD and join channel #kanotix o要 IRC. Helpful people there will help you solve the problem and many others too.

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I Urgently Need To Write On NTFS, How Do I Go About That?

This is even possible from the LIVE-CD .

All you have to do is give Grub-promt the cheatcode "unionfs" when booting or run the script "# fix-unionfs.sh" from a konsole.

Writing o要 NTFS-Partitions is advisible to experienced users o要ly that are ready to take a risk.
Total loss of data can not be ruled out!!
All mentioned commands must be issued as root

If you can `see' an NTFS-Partition under Linux (here hda1) then it should be mounted

# mount /dev/hda1

Then you have to load the neccessary drivers with the script:

# captive-install-acquire

(If the neccessary file is not o要 your harddisk and you have connection to the internet it tries to download the files. (be aware:ca. 30MB download)
unmount the NTFS-Partition:

# umount /mnt/hda1

and mount the integrated captive-driver:

# mount -t captive-ntfs /dev/hda1 /mnt/hda1

Now you can read and write the NTFS-Partition as root!
You can achieve the same without running the "captive-install-acquire" script by copiying the 4 needed files (cdfs.sys, fastfat.sys,ntfs.sys,ntoskrnl.exe) to"/var/lib/captive".

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Hotplug For USB-Device Doesn't Work After HD-Install. What Can I Do?

You can patch the Hotplug script (at your own risk):

# perl -pi -e 's/(rebuildfstab -r).*/\1/' /sbin/hotplug-knoppix

or activate the Hotplug Code as from the CD:

# echo "/sbin/hotplug-knoppix" > /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug

The other routine you get back after reboot or with:

# echo "/sbin/hotplug" > /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug

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What program is best for what job, e.g. E-mail, graphics, CD burning ...?

There is a list of all programs that can be found here:

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I have an idea how KANOTIX can be even better, where can I send this?

Best put it in this thread:

Was kann besser werden?

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Is there a channel in IRC?

Yes, Kano and the other developers are often found on irc.freenode.net in the #kanotix room.

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Why is there always read/write activity on my harddisk? How can I stop this?

Responsible for this is the "Laptop mode". This is used by the Linux-Kernel to reduce power consumption o要 laptops by shutting down the harddisk
If you dont have a laptop, you can remove the laptop-mode-tools:

# apt-get --purge remove laptop-mode-tools

Problem should be solved now.

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What do red error messages at boot time mean?

Since last dist-upgrade or new install I get this red error-message:

starting PCMIA Services
no sockets found


This means that your system needs no pcmcia-support, You can solve this by removing the start-script for "pcmcia" with the command:

# update-rc.d -f pcmcia remove

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How do I update the KANOTIX-Kernel?

After successfull installation and testing, old kernels can be removed from the system. To do so, you can use the script remove-all-kernels-completely which is in the package kanotix-kernelhacking!

Now for installation.
In the left menu on the KANOTIX-Website you will find current kernels in 3 flavours:

  • up - Kernel for the i386 Processor Family

  • smp - Kernel for the i386 Processor Family with dual core

  • 64-smp - Kernel for the AMD64- Processor Family, when using 64 bit Kanotix

  • Download the kernel for your processor (we call this archive kernel.zip, but its going to have a name like: kernel- )
    Open a terminal, move to the directory, where the downloaded archive lives, and unpack the archive:
    $ unzip kernel.zip -d kernel-current
    Move to the created directory kernel-current:
    $ cd kernel-current
    Next steps need "root" rights, therefore:
    $ sux become root

    # ./install-kernel-kanotix.sh

    IMPORTANT: if you need certain driver modules, e.g. for wlan,you have to install the proper .deb packages for them, e.g., if using madwifi, you have to install the .deb package for madwifi:
    # dpkg -i madwifi-modules*.deb

    Now restart your computer. The new kernel is booted by default. (if the new one gives problems, you can choose an older kernel here).

    If you dont need ATI- ot NVIDIA 3d drivers just readjust the volume settings for your soundcard and kernel-update is done. If you have ATI- or NVIDIA card, the first reboot to the new kernel should be made to runlevel 3 (this is done by adding 3 to the Grub-Boot-Line)

    When in runlevel 3, first update Kano's scripts:
    # update-scripts-kanotix.sh

    make sure, the newest gcc compiler is installed - you can find out with the following command:
    # apt-cache policy $(dpkg -l |grep -v base |grep -e 'gcc-'|awk '{print $2;}' |tail -1)

    If neccessary, get newest gcc version, then the newest graphics driver can be installed:

    # install-nvidia-debian.sh
    # install-fglrx-debian.sh

    After successfull installation of the new kernel, the kernel.zip (and the kernel archive) can be deleted.

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    I lost root password. How can I recover it or change it?

    You can not recover the lost password but you can set a new one.

    Boot from the Live-CD.

    As root mount your root partition (for example /dev/hdb2)
    # mount /dev/hdb2

    Now chroot into your old root-Partition with
    # chroot /media/hdb2

    and use the passwd command to set a new password:
    # passwd

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    What to do if the desktop freezes?

    In such a situation you dont always need the reset button. This could damage the filesystem or lead to loss of data. In any way the filesystem wont be clean after a hard reset (filesystem not clean). If nothing works, not even changing to a textconsole (alt-ctl-F1) or restarting the X-server (alt-ctl-backspace), there is still hope:
    The SYSRQ-key (print-key, on the upper right side of the keyboard) will help you to cleanly reboot a frozen system.

    The following sequence of key-combinations are possible:

  • ALT+SYSRQ+R (should give back control of the keyboard )

  • ALT+SYSRQ+S (issues a sync)

  • ALT+SYSRQ+E (Sends term to all processes but init)

  • ALT+SYSRQ+I (Sends kill to all processes but init)

  • ALT+SYSRQ+U (filesystems are mounted readonly, prevents fsck at reboot)

  • ALT+SYSRQ+B (reboots the system, without the previous steps this would be a hard reset).

  • Best give every step a few seconds to complete, ending all processes for example could take a little while.
    The needed letters can be easily remembered with: "Raising Skinny Elephants Is Utterly Boring"
    thxx zulu9 for contributing

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    How to burn a CD/DVD without a GUI

    If you want to burn a CD / DVD, you dont neccessarily need a GUI to do so.

    Problems with burning mostly happen with the frontend (k3b), not so much with the backends (growisofs, cdrecord or cdrdao).

    What device do I use?

    For ATAPI devices we can find out with:

    $ cdrecord -dev=ATAPI: -scanbus
    Cdrecord-Clone 2.01.01a03 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2005 Joerg Schilling
    scsidev: 'ATAPI'
    devname: 'ATAPI'
    scsibus: -2 target: -2 lun: -2
    Warning: Using ATA Packet interface.
    0,0,0 0) 'AOPEN ' 'CD-RW CRW2440 ' '2.02' Removable CD-ROM
    0,1,0 1) '_NEC ' 'DVD_RW ND-3540A ' '1.01' Removable CD-ROM
    0,2,0 2) *

    this means: cdrecord uses ATAPI:0,0,0 or ATAPI:0,1,0 as device
    in the following exampels we use ATAPI:0,0,0 for CD-ROM and/or the second device for DVD.

    the same check with cdrdao:
    $ cdrdao scanbus
    Cdrdao version 1.2.1 - (C) Andreas Mueller <andreas@daneb.de>
    ATA:1,0,0 AOPEN , CD-RW CRW2440 , 2.02
    ATA:1,1,0 _NEC , DVD_RW ND-3540A , 1.01

    for cdrdao you can use the output from cdrecord as well: ATAPI:0,0,0 zB or ATA:1,0,0
    we use the output from cdrecord in the following examples

    with SCSI-devices:
    $ cdrecord -scanbus
    Cdrecord-Clone 2.01.01a03 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2005 Joerg Schilling
    0,0,0 0) 'RICOH ' 'CD-R/RW MP7060S ' '1.80' Removable CD-ROM
    0,1,0 1) *
    0,2,0 2) *

    in this case we use 0,0,0 for the scsi device

    Here are some usefull examples:

    * Info about a blank CD/DVD:

    $ cdrecord -dev ATAPI:0,0,0 -atip
    $ cdrdao disk-info --device ATAPI:0,0,0$
    (or, as stated above: cdrdao disk-info --device ATA:1,0,0 )

    * delete a rewritable disk:

    $ cdrecord -v -dev ATAPI:0,0,0 blank=fast -force
    $ cdrdao blank --device ATAPI:0,0,0 --blank-mode minimal

    * clone a cd:

    $ cdrdao copy --fast-toc --device ATAPI:0,0,0 --buffers 256 -v2

    * clone a cd on the fly:

    $ cdrdao copy --fast-toc --source-device ATAPI:0,1,0 --device ATAPI:0,0,0 \
    --on-the-fly --buffers 256 --eject -v2

    * create an audio cd from wav files with 12x speed:

    $ cdrecord -v -eject -pad -dao speed=12 dev=ATAPI:0,0,0 defpregap=0 -audio *.wav

    * burn a cd from bin/cue files:

    $ cdrdao write --speed 24 --device ATAPI:0,0,0 --eject filenam.cue

    * burn an ISO image:

    $ cdrecord -v -eject speed=12 dev=ATAPI:0.0.0 driveropts=burnfree -overburn \
    -ignsize data "iso_File_name"

    * create an ISO image with all files (and subdirs) of a directory. This can the be burned with the command above (burn ISO image):

    $ mkisofs -o myImage.iso -r -J -l directory

    * if you have a DVD burner, you can also use growisofs for burning to DVD,
    like burning an ISO image to DVD:

    $ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/dvd=image.iso

    * burn multiple files to DVD:

    $ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -R -J datei1 datei2 datei3 ...

    * if there is space left on the DVD, you can append more files:

    $ growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J anotherfile andanotherfile...

    * to finalize the session, you use:

    $ growisofs -M /dev/dvd=/dev/zero

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